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History & Culture
History & Culture

泰國的歷史源遠流長,有詳盡的文獻記載;遠在新石器時代,泰國文明就已經在現今的挽昌 (Ban Chiang) 遺址孕育,並被聯合國教科文組織認定為世界文化遺產,令泰國人民深感自豪。在西元的早期的數世紀,孟(Mon)、高棉(Khmer)和傣(Tai)的數個民族已經在現今的泰國境內建立了王國;在第一個千禧年掌權的孟族,是講求佛教Dvaravati文明思想,在第二個千禧年將權力轉交了給高棉族的吳哥 (Angkor)帝國。 然而,我們所知道的泰國歷史是從十三及十四世紀開始的。那時的蘭納( La Na )(清萊和清邁) 和素可泰(Sukhothai)分別在泰國的北部和中部地區,組織了高度發展的社區和建立了首個真正獨立的泰王國。亞猶他亞(Ayutthaya)王國由於很大程度上受到吳哥帝國的高棉族影響,最終征服了鄰國素可泰,並且在之後統治這個地方幾百年。不幸的是當清邁及亞猶他亞先後被緬甸人入侵,侵佔了Lan Na 的首都,並且洗劫了亞猶他亞,迫使泰王國離開中部地區遷都南下,在接近曼谷的吞武裡(Thon Buri) 建立了新的首都。 在吞武裡做了短暫停留(1767-1772)之後,就遷都去了昭拍耶河 (Chao Phraya River)對岸建立了現時的首都曼谷。而卻克里(Chakri)朝代的拉瑪 (Rama)一世,作為現時王朝的首位國王,開闢了泰國歷史上的拉達那哥辛(Ratanakosin)時代。多得拉瑪四世王蒙吉 (Kings Mongkut, Rama IV, 1851-1868)和拉瑪五世王朱拉隆恭 (King Chulalongkorn , Rama V, 1868-1910) 的老練外交手段,得以保持了逾七百年從未曾被外來殖民統治,創造出泰國彪炳顯赫的歷史。動盪的廿世紀見證了泰國轉變為君主立憲制的過程。泰國是由現任的國王蒲眉蓬陛下 (King Bumibol Adulyadej) ,是為卻克裡王朝的拉瑪九世王 (King Rama IX),就是在這位備受人民愛戴的攝政王的統治下,一個較為薄弱但功能健全的民主體制現已成立。

Earliest History

Earliest History

在泰國多個地區發現了動植物化石,特別在東北部的哥拉平原 (Korat Plateau)。大多數在泰國發現的動物化石是恐龍,最早的能追溯到侏羅紀時代,也有一些是三疊紀末時代的化石,是最古老的恐龍出現在東南亞地區的證據。

在孔敬(Khon Kaen)府的蒲維安(Phu Wiang)砂岩山區出土的恐龍化石,包括有素食的Phuwiangosaurus Sirindhornae龍,它擁有細小的頭及長長的頸項和尾巴。另有四種在此出土的恐龍化石,包括Siamosauraus Suteethorni 恐龍,(Tyrannosaurus Rex的較細的品種),Siamosauraus Suteethorni龍 (一種像鱷魚的生物) Compsognathus 龍(世界最小的恐龍) Ornithomimosaur龍(像鴕鳥的恐龍)。

最近於差也奔府(Chaiyaphum) 兩個新品種的恐龍被發現:Psittacosaurus sattayaraki龍,一隻像長了鸚鵡咀的恐龍和Isanosauus attavipachi龍,形狀跟Phuwiangosaurus Sirindhornae龍相似。

在泰國的南邦府(Lampang),在此發現一些相信是生於五十到一百萬年前 (Pleistocene Era)的直立行走的人類化石,現被稱為南邦人。另在泰國東北部烏隆府 (Udon Thani)的挽昌(Ban Chiang)出土的古墓遺址,是現代泰國首次的在境內發現 有人類居住的古物,當中包括青銅器工具、陶瓷器皿等文物,亦可引證當時社會已擁有稻米耕作的知識。而這些人類行徑在西元前200至2100年前已經在這區域進行,等於跨越由石器至鐵器時代。

Pre-Thai Kingdoms

Pre-Thai Kingdoms

Over the centuries leading up to the era of recorded history, Thailand was first peopled by Mon and Khmer groups and later by the Tai, an ethnic group that migrated from southern China to Vietnam and gradually into Laos and northern Thailand.

In the first millennium of the Common Era, Tai people had dispersed across Yunan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar fragmenting into various linguistic sub-sects. Relatively minor players in the region throughout this period, the Tai inhabited the northernmost reaches of Southeast Asia, sandwiched between the kingdoms of Nan Zhao, Pyu, and Angkor.

Beginning in around the 2nd century CE, the Srivijaya Empire of Sumatra expanded its reach up the Malaysian Peninsula into southern Thailand. Nakhon Si Thammarat and Chiaya, Surat Thani were founded during this period to facilitate trade across the Isthmus of Kra.

Around the 6th to the 9th centuries, the fertile central plains were inhabited by a Mon civilization known as Dvaravati. Distinct from its neighboring kingdoms of Chenla and Angkor, Dvaravati remains a mysterious civilization that established cities surrounded by moats and earthen walls, with Lopburi serving as an important religious center and Nakhon Pathom near Bangkok possibly its ‘capital’. While much is unknown about this realm, the Dvaravati had well established internal and external trading routes that were important to the development of Thailand and left a wealth of Buddhist artwork that testifies to the great influence Indian culture and religion had on the region.

From the 9th to the 11th centuries the Khmers of Angkor expanded their kingdom to include most of modern-day Thailand, with important provincial cities established at Phimai, Lopburi and even Nakhon Si Thammarat. Over several centuries many facets of the Khmer culture were imposed on/absorbed by the native population, which was becoming increasingly Tai as those populations migrated south. The temples at Phanom Rung, Phimai, and Lopburi are enduring testaments to this period of Thai history.

Throughout the reign of Angkor, Lopburi often asserted its independence and was clearly an important center for burgeoning Syam culture. The Chinese, who referred to emissaries from the region as representing “Hsien” or Siam (as it was apparently pronounced) documented a request from Lopburi requesting independence from Angkor as early as 1001.

In northern Thailand, Buddhist scholars from Lopburi founded a city-state known as Haripunjaya in Lamphun, northern Thailand around the 9th century (a Mon enclave that remained independent until the 13th century). Elsewhere in the north, the Tai people were fanning out and establishing their own city states, notably at Chiang Saen, where one of the first powerful Thai kingdoms, Lan Na, was originally established in the 12th century. The establishment of Lan Na, Sukhothai, and Phayao, three allied kingdoms founded by contemporary leaders, represents the beginning of the Thai history as we know it.

Sukhothai

Sukhothai

傣族由13世紀已開始凸顯其獨立地位,以脫離高棉及孟族的影響。而由兩位民族領袖Khun Pha Muang及Kbun Bang Klang Thao於1238年在此地區成立素可泰(Sukhothai)王國,並稱為”幸福的黎明”。這個被稱為泰國最光輝的年代,是物阜民豐的理想國度。由多位愛民若子的君王統治,其中最為世人傳頌的有蘭甘亨大帝(King Ramkamhaeng the Great, 1279-98),他在位時大大擴展素可泰的版圖。

這期間有不少泰國藝術瑰寶,最為後代所傳頌的是發展現代泰文的字母。但隨著蘭甘亨國王駕崩後,便為強鄰亞猶他亞王國入侵而煙沒。蘭納(Lan Na)亦擴展對鄰國的影響,而其中不少亦是前素可泰的宗主。

在15世紀King Tilokoraj王在位其間,蘭納藝術文學成就達到巔峰,但自他死後,但由於內訌,令到蘭納轉弱,最後於1564年左右,緬甸人進佔清邁。但他們在佔據清邁數世紀期內,衹把它作為軍事据點去對抗亞猶他亞,抵禦來自中部平原的強大王國的進攻,亦被它續漸影響直至公元14世紀以後。

Ayuddhaya

Ayuddhaya

自始至終亞猶他亞的君主都受到高棉文化的影響。不像素可泰的君主般愛民若子的賢君。亞猶他亞自奉為devaraja天皇(God King),執行絕對的帝制。並視鄰國為諸侯國家,由此亦紛爭不斷。在17世紀時暹邏開始與西方各國有外交及商貿關係。經過多次進軍,緬甸人終於1767年成功侵佔亞猶他亞。

雖然得到壓倒性的勝利,但緬甸人卻末能長久控制暹邏國。一位年青將軍Phya Taksin及其隨屬成功迫使緬甸人敗退到Chantaburi。就在亞猶他亞被滅國後,他信的軍隊便沿昭拍耶河直搗亞猶他西亞緬甸人的軍營,可悲是這首都已被他們劫掠一空及徹底摧毀。

Thonburi

Thonburi

達辛將軍決定遷都至一靠近海岸的地點,這遷徒行動將對外貿易更方便,採購軍火更穩妥,及對緬甸人日後的侵略攻防策略部處更容易。他在昭拍耶河西岸吞武里建立新都,即於現時的首都曼谷對岸。

但達辛管治這個四分五裂的國土殊非易事,終其統治期內皆致力於重新組合各分離的省份,令國家權力再集中。

Rattanakosin

Rattanakosin

達信將軍決定移都至一靠近海岸的地點,這遷徒行動將對外貿易更方便,採購軍火更穩妥,及對緬甸人日後的侵略攻防策略部處更容易。他在昭拍耶河西岸吞武里建立新都,即於現時的首都曼谷對岸。

但達信管治這個四分五裂的國土殊非易事,終其統治期內皆致力於重新組合各分離的省份,令國家權力再集中。

 www.tourismthailand.org/hk/about-thailand/history/rattanakosin/

拉達那哥辛時期 (Rattanakosin)

在達信( Taksin) 將軍死後,卻克里將軍(Chakri),便繼任國王,是為拉瑪( Rama )一世,亦是卻克里王朝的首位君主。他首先將吞武里的首都移到對岸的曼谷及興建大皇宮。到拉瑪二世時仍繼續進行修復工程。拉瑪三世開始與西方各國修復關係及開通與中國貿易。

拉瑪四世蒙吉國王,能取得西方各國對他認同是由小說”國王與我”(The King and I)的故事流傳。但贏盡泰國人的心是他的成就,這包括與歐洲列強修訂友好條約以防止殖民主義在泰國推行;另外進行多項社會和經濟改革令泰國得到現代化,改善民生。

他的兒子拉瑪五世朱拉隆功王繼續推行父親的改革傳統,取消奴隸制度及改善公共福利及改良行政體系。

到拉瑪六世即位(1910-1925),Vajiravudh王進行教育改革,包括實施強迫教育制度。至拉瑪七世時,Prajadhipok王(1925-1935)即將君主政制改為君主立憲制。他於1933年退位讓位他的侄兒Ananda Mahidol王,是為拉瑪八世(1935-1946)。他將暹邏國改名為泰國並於1939年把民主政府推行。現今在位的國王是拉瑪九世蒲眉蓬、亞杜德陛下,自1946起繼位至今,是查克里王朝的第九位國王。